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Vitamin D Does this test have other names? 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-high-DROX-ee-VIE-tuh-min D), 25(OH)D What is this test? Vitamin D is mainly found in fortified dairy foods, juice, breakfast cereal, and certain fish. This vitamin plays many roles in the body. But because it helps the body absorb calcium from foods and supplements, it's particularly important for bone health. Vitamin D has many additional roles in the body. Vitamin D comes in several forms. When ultraviolet light, such as sunlight, hits...
Varicoceles Varicoceles are veins that have expanded, or dilated, because of swelling. The condition is much like varicose veins that occur in the legs of some adult women and men. Swelling occurs when veins inside the spermatic cord aren't working properly. The spermatic cord is a structure that contains vessels and other tissues joining each testicle to the body. Veins in the cord normally take blood back to the heart, and tiny valves inside the veins keep the blood flowing in the right direction. Val...
Vertebroplasty (Percutaneous Vertebroplasty) Procedure overview Vertebroplasty is a procedure in which a special medical-grade cement mixture is injected into a fractured vertebra. The vertebrae are the small bones that make up the spine. When they become fractured, you will often experience pain and a loss of mobility. When vertebroplasty is successful, the cement mixture injection stabilizes the vertebra and allows you to return to normal activity after a recovery period. Click image to enlarge Reason...
Vardenafil Hydrochloride Oral tablet
Vardenafil Hydrochloride Oral tablet What is this medicine? VARDENAFIL (var den a fil) is used to treat erection problems in men. How should I use this medicine? Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. You may take this medicine with or without meals. The dose is usually taken 1 hour before sexual activity. You should not take this dose more than once per day. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. Talk to your pediatrician regardi...
Venography (Lower Limb Venography)
Venography (Lower Limb Venography) What is venography? Venography is a procedure that provides X-ray pictures of the veins, often of the legs. Dye (contrast material) is injected. The contrast dye allows the health care provider to check the size and condition of the veins. Depending on the reason for the procedure, different areas may be examined. For example, the procedure may involve, one or both legs or arms or the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the body to the heart. Click Image ...
Valvuloplasty (Balloon Valvuloplasty) Procedure overview What is valvuloplasty? Valvuloplasty is performed, in certain circumstances, to open a stenotic (stiff) heart valve. In valvuloplasty, a very small, narrow, hollow tube (known as a catheter) is advanced from a blood vessel in the groin through the aorta into the heart. Once the catheter is placed in the valve to be opened, a large balloon at the tip of the catheter is inflated until the leaflets (flaps) of the valve are opened. Once the valve has ...
Visual Screening Overview
Visual Screening Overview Newborn babies arrive equipped with wonderful abilities to see and hear. Although their vision is not as sharp as that of an adult, newborn babies show responses to adult faces in the earliest days of life. Babies also have remarkable responses to sounds. They startle with loud noises and become quiet to the mother's voice. Sometimes, babies have problems with vision. These problems may be due to a birth defect, or may be caused by the effects of prematurity, neurological probl...
Very Low Birthweight
Very Low Birthweight What is very low birthweight? Very low birthweight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 1,500 grams (3 pounds, 4 ounces). Only a few babies, 1.5%, are born this tiny. However, the overall rate of very low birthweight babies in the U.S. is increasing. This is primarily due to the greater numbers of multiple birth babies who are more likely to be born early and weigh less. Babies with very low birthweight look much smaller than other babies of normal birth...
Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn)
Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn) What is vitamin K deficiency bleeding? Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) is a bleeding problem that occurs in some newborns during the first few days of life. VKDB was previously called hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. What causes vitamin K deficiency bleeding? Babies are normally born with low levels of vitamin K, an essential factor in blood clotting. A deficiency in vitamin K is the main cause of VKDB. Who is affected by vitamin...
Vision Many eye problems that affect infants, children, and adolescents require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below you will find some, for which we have provided a brief overview. Vision Overview Age-Appropriate Vision Milestones Eye Examinations and Visual Screening Types of Visual Screening Tests for Infants and Children Problems With Vision
Varicella (Chickenpox) What is varicella? Varicella (chickenpox) is a very common childhood disease. It's usually mild, but can be serious, especially in young infants and adults. Varicella is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a form of the herpes virus. Varicella is a highly contagious virus that is spread from person-to-person through the air or by contacting the fluid from the blisters caused by the virus. Chickenpox causes a blistering itching rash (pox), fever, and fatigue. It can lead to...
Varicella and Pregnancy
Varicella and Pregnancy What is varicella? Varicella (or chickenpox) is a highly infectious disease, usually associated with childhood. By adulthood, the vast majority of Americans have had chickenpox or have previously been vaccinated in childhood. Although more than 90 percent of pregnant women are immune to chickenpox, about 1 in 2,000 pregnant women in the United States will develop chickenpox during pregnancy, however, because they are not immune. Pregnant women who get chickenpox are at risk for s...
Visual Screening and Eye Examinations
Visual Screening and Eye Examinations Listed in the directory below you will find some additional information regarding your child's vision, for which we have provided a brief overview. Visual Screening Overview Age-Appropriate Vision Milestones Eye Examinations and Visual Screening Signs and Symptoms of Potential Eye Problems Types of Visual Screening Tests for Infants and Children
Vaginitis in Adolescents
Vaginitis in Adolescents What is vaginitis? Vaginitis refers to any inflammation or infection of the vagina. This is a common gynecological problem found in females of all ages, with one-third of females having at least one form of vaginitis at some time during their lives. When the walls of the vagina become inflamed, because some irritant has disturbed the balance of the vaginal area, vaginitis can occur. What causes vaginitis? Bacteria, yeast, viruses, or chemicals in creams or sprays, can cause vagi...
Vulvitis in Teens
Vulvitis in Teens What is vulvitis? Vulvitis is simply an inflammation of the vulva, the soft folds of skin outside the vagina. This is not a condition but rather a symptom that results from a host of diseases, infections, injuries, allergies, and other irritants. Diagnosing and treating this condition can be frustrating because it is often difficult to determine the specific cause of the irritation. What causes vulvitis? Vulvitis may be caused by one, or more, of the following: Scented or colored toile...
Vascular Conditions and Diseases
Vascular Conditions and Diseases There are many vascular conditions that require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are some of these conditions, for which we have provided a brief overview. Overview of the Vascular System Medical Management of Vascular Conditions Aneurysm Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Cerebral Aneurysm Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Carotid Artery Disease Chronic Venous Insufficiency Claudication Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophleb...
Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor
Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor What is a vocational rehabilitation counselor? Vocational rehabilitation counselors assist people with disabilities in planning careers, and finding and keeping satisfying jobs. They evaluate the patient for the following: Education and job training history prior to the disability Skills and training potential since the disability Personal interest and motivation Financial needs Progress after job placement Vocational rehabilitation counselors educate disabled patient...
Vision, Hearing, and Speech Milestones
Vision, Hearing, and Speech Milestones Listed in the directory below you will find additional information regarding your child's vision, hearing, speech, and language development, for which we have provided a brief overview. Vision, Hearing and Speech Overview Vision Milestones Hearing Milestones Speech Milestones
Vulvar Cancer Click Image to Enlarge What is the vulva? The vulva is the external portion of the female genital organs. It includes: Labia majora. Two large, fleshy lips, or folds of skin. Labia minora. Small lips just inside the labia majora and surround the openings to the urethra and vagina. Vestibule. Space where the vagina opens. Prepuce. A fold of skin formed by the labia minora that covers the clitoris. Clitoris. A small protrusion of nerve tissue sensitive to stimulation. Fourchette. Area beneat...
Vaginitis What is vaginitis? Click Image to Enlarge Vaginitis refers to any inflammation or infection of the vagina. This is a common gynecological problem found in women of all ages, with one-third of women having at least one form of vaginitis at some time during their lives. The vagina is the muscular passageway between the uterus and the external genital area. When the walls of the vagina become inflamed, because some irritant has disturbed the balance of the vaginal area, vaginitis can occur. What ...
Vulvitis What is vulvitis? Click Image to Enlarge Vulvitis is simply an inflammation of the vulva, the soft folds of skin outside the vagina. This is not a condition, but rather a symptom that results from a host of diseases, infections, injuries, allergies, and other irritants. Diagnosing and treating this condition can be frustrating because it is often difficult to determine the specific cause of the irritation. What causes vulvitis? Vulvitis may be caused by one or more of the following: Scented or ...
Viral Hepatitis Overview
Viral Hepatitis Overview What is hepatitis? Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver that results in liver cell damage and destruction. Click Image to Enlarge Hepatitis can be categorized in 2 groups: Acute hepatitis Chronic hepatitis There are 6 main types of the hepatitis virus that have been identified: Hepatitis A This type of hepatitis is usually spread by fecal-oral contact, or fecal-infected food and water. It may also be spread by blood-borne infection (which is rare). The following is a list of m...
How Much Do You Know About Vitamins? Sometimes it's hard to keep your vitamin facts straight. How much vitamin A do you need? What's the best source of Vitamin C? And all those B vitamins—which one is which? Here's a quiz that offers a chance to learn something different about vitamins. 1. The time of day, season, where you live, your skin color, and how often you use sunscreen can all affect the amount of which vitamin your skin is able to make? You didn't answer this question. You answered The correct...
Vegetarian protein sources
Good sources of protein for vegetarians are eggs (for those who eat eggs), beans, nuts, beans, nut butters, peas and soy products, says the USDA .
Vitamin Supplement Linked to Reduction in Skin Cancer Risk
Vitamin Supplement Linked to Reduction in Skin Cancer Risk WEDNESDAY, May 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A cheap and easily available vitamin supplement appears to reduce a person's risk of skin cancer, new research contends. A form of vitamin B3 called nicotinamide is linked to a reduction of non-melanoma skin cancers by 23 percent when taken twice daily, according to Australian researchers. "It's safe, it's almost obscenely inexpensive, and it's already widely commercially available," said senior author...
Vitamin D Levels Tied to Survival in Seriously Ill Cats
Vitamin D Levels Tied to Survival in Seriously Ill Cats THURSDAY, May 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Sick cats appear to have a better chance of survival if they have higher levels of vitamin D, a new study reveals. The findings suggest that cats could help scientists learn more about the link between vitamin D and people's health, according to the researchers at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. However, the study was only designed to find an association between vitamin D levels and a feline's odd...
Vitamin D Supplements Might Help Some Lose Weight
Vitamin D Supplements Might Help Some Lose Weight FRIDAY, May 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For obese Americans who are low on vitamin D, taking a supplement of the nutrient might help them lose weight, a new study suggests. According to an Italian team, led by Luisella Vigna of the University of Milan, prior research has shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk of obesity and obesity-related complications. However, studies on the use of vitamin D supplements to curb obesity have s...
Vitamin D Supplements Might Slow Prostate Cancer, Study Suggests
Vitamin D Supplements Might Slow Prostate Cancer, Study Suggests MONDAY, March 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin D supplements may slow or prevent low-grade prostate cancer from progressing, a small new study suggests. "Vitamin D decreases inflammation in tissues, and inflammation is a driver of cancer," explained Bruce Hollis, the study's lead researcher and a professor of pediatrics, biochemistry and molecular biology at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. For the study, researc...
Vitamin D Won't Help Fight High Blood Pressure, Researchers Say
Vitamin D Won't Help Fight High Blood Pressure, Researchers Say MONDAY, March 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin D may help the body in many ways, but a new data review suggests it won't do much to lower high blood pressure. Vitamin D is nicknamed the "sunshine vitamin," because the body produces the nutrient when skin is exposed to sunlight. People can also get vitamin D through such foods as eggs, milk, yogurt, tuna, salmon, cereal and orange juice. In the new study, a team led by Dr. Miles Witham o...
Vegetarian Diet May Lower Colon Cancer Risk, Study Suggests
Vegetarian Diet May Lower Colon Cancer Risk, Study Suggests MONDAY, March 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A vegetarian diet might cut your risk of colorectal cancer by 20 percent, a new study finds. For fish-eating vegetarians, the protective link was even stronger, researchers said. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Screening efforts, including colonoscopy, have helped save many lives by detecting precancerous polyps, said the study's lead researcher, Dr. M...
Veggie-Rich Diets May Mean Lower Heart Risks
Veggie-Rich Diets May Mean Lower Heart Risks THURSDAY, March 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People who eat more plant foods than animal products may lower their risk of dying from heart disease or a stroke, a new large study suggests. Researchers found that among more than 450,000 European adults, those whose diets were about 70 percent plant-based -- meaning whole grains, beans, vegetables, fruit and nuts -- had a relatively lower risk of dying from heart disease. Their odds were 20 percent lower, compare...
Very Obese Kids May Face Higher Heart Risks Than Thought
Very Obese Kids May Face Higher Heart Risks Than Thought MONDAY, March 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Extremely obese children -- such as those at least 100 pounds overweight -- are in deeper trouble in terms of heart disease risks than doctors have thought, new research suggests. In the study, about half the children suffered from high blood pressure, and almost 15 percent were diabetic. Seventy-five percent had high levels of a protein that's linked to heart disease. "Severe obesity in the adolescent age...
Viruses Increasingly Behind Child Pneumonia Cases
Viruses Increasingly Behind Child Pneumonia Cases WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Young children are at increased risk of becoming seriously ill with pneumonia -- but unlike in years past, the cause is usually a respiratory virus, a large U.S. study finds. The researchers found that 66 percent of pneumonia cases in the more than 2,000 children in the study were caused by viruses alone. Just 8 percent had solely bacterial causes, and 7 percent were known to be caused by both bacteria and vir...
Vyvanse Approved for Binge-Eating Disorder
Vyvanse Approved for Binge-Eating Disorder MONDAY, Feb. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat adults with recurring bouts of compulsive overeating known as binge-eating disorder. It's the first drug sanctioned in the United States to treat the disorder, the agency said in a news release. Vyvanse was first approved in 2007 to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for those aged six and older. P...
Viruses May Play Role in Crohn's Disease, Colitis: Study
Viruses May Play Role in Crohn's Disease, Colitis: Study FRIDAY, Jan. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Viruses may play a role in inflammatory bowel diseases, including the two most common types, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, a new study reveals. Previous research has linked these bowel diseases with a lower variety of bacteria in the gut, according to the researchers. In this new study, people with inflammatory bowel disease had a greater variety of viruses in their digestive systems compared to ...
Vaccine Opponents Often Cluster in Communities
Vaccine Opponents Often Cluster in Communities MONDAY, Jan. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Parents who refuse to have their children vaccinated appear to be clustered in certain areas, a new study suggests. Among more than 150,000 children in 13 counties in Northern California, the researchers found five clusters where kids had missed one or more vaccinations by the time they were 3 years old. "It's known from other studies that areas where there are clusters of vaccine refusal are at higher risk of epide...
Vitamin D May Boost Colon Cancer Survival, Study Finds
Vitamin D May Boost Colon Cancer Survival, Study Finds MONDAY, Jan. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Higher vitamin D levels in patients with advanced colon cancer appear to improve response to chemotherapy and targeted anti-cancer drugs, researchers say. "We found that patients who had vitamin D levels at the highest category had improved survival and improved progression-free survival, compared with patients in the lowest category," said lead author Dr. Kimmie Ng, an assistant professor of medicine at Har...
Vaccination Can Cut Rates of Common Infection in Infants
Vaccination Can Cut Rates of Common Infection in Infants TUESDAY, Jan. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Rotavirus is a relatively common infection of infants and -- especially in poorer countries -- can cause sometimes fatal diarrhea and vomiting. However, a new U.S. study finds that widespread vaccination against rotavirus cuts children's rates of infection. In the study, researchers led by Leila Sahni, immunization action plan coordinator at Texas Children's Hospital, tracked the use of the rotavirus vacc...
Vaccine for Deer Against 'Mad Cow'-Like Illness Shows Promise
Vaccine for Deer Against 'Mad Cow'-Like Illness Shows Promise SUNDAY, Dec. 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new vaccine created to fight an illness similar to "mad cow disease" in deer might also protect livestock and even humans from similar brain infections, researchers report. The vaccine appears to help prevent deer from becoming infected by the incurable brain disorder known as chronic wasting disease, according to the report in the Dec. 21 online edition of the journal Vaccine . Chronic wasting dise...
Vaccinating Schoolkids Cuts Flu in Communities: Study
Vaccinating Schoolkids Cuts Flu in Communities: Study MONDAY, Dec. 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Giving flu shots to schoolchildren also protects others, a new study finds. "The effect of school-based vaccination was profound, both on the students and on the community," lead author Cuc Tran, a doctoral student in public health at the University of Florida, said in a university news release. When half of the children aged 5 to 17 in Alachua County, Fla., received seasonal flu vaccinations through a school...
Vitamins May Help Prevent Eye Problems After Weight-Loss Surgery, Study Finds
Vitamins May Help Prevent Eye Problems After Weight-Loss Surgery, Study Finds THURSDAY, Dec. 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgery patients who don't take prescribed vitamin and mineral supplements could put themselves at risk for vision problems, a new study says. Digestive system changes caused by the surgery can reduce nutrient absorption from food, the researchers explain in the current issue of the journal Obesity Surgery . "There is a risk that bariatric surgery patients, who do not take...
Vaccine for Hepatitis C Inches Closer to Reality
Vaccine for Hepatitis C Inches Closer to Reality WEDNESDAY, Nov. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- An initial study suggests that a potential vaccine against hepatitis C, a liver disease that affects at least 130 million people worldwide, is safe in people. The newly released findings are good news, said study co-author Dr. Ellie Barnes, a professor of hepatology and experimental medicine at the University of Oxford in England. The results indicate the vaccine can safely boost the immune system in a way that ...
Voters' Views on Obamacare Split Along Party Lines
Voters' Views on Obamacare Split Along Party Lines WEDNESDAY, Oct. 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Americans' opinions about the Affordable Care Act are sharply divided along political lines, a new study finds. Democratic voters are strongly in favor of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), according to the researchers. Almost three-quarters of Democrats want the next Congress to move ahead with the ACA. Thirty percent want Congress to implement the current law, while 44 percent want to expand the scope of the AC...
Very Special Delivery: Unused U.S. Surgical Supplies
Very Special Delivery: Unused U.S. Surgical Supplies TUESDAY, Oct. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Unused medical supplies from American hospitals could improve the safety of surgeries around the world, a new report says. Certain large academic U.S. medical centers alone produce about 2 million pounds of surplus medical supplies each year, the researchers estimated. "In ORs [operating rooms] throughout the U.S., surgical supplies are often packaged together. Upon being opened, there are commonly excess sup...
Vitamin D May Not Prevent Return of Women's Infection After All
Vitamin D May Not Prevent Return of Women's Infection After All TUESDAY, Oct. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new study suggests that high doses of vitamin D may not help prevent the return of vaginosis, a vaginal infection that's especially common in younger women. The findings counter other research that suggests higher vitamin D levels could boost the immune system as it tries to fight off the infection, according to background information in the study. "Earlier studies observed that women with low vi...
Vitamin D Might Help Kids With Eczema
Vitamin D Might Help Kids With Eczema FRIDAY, Oct. 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Daily vitamin D supplements might help children with eczema that gets worse in the winter, a new study suggests. When eczema, a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, flares up in the winter it's known as winter-related atopic dermatitis. Researchers found vitamin D significantly reduced the uncomfortable symptoms associated with this disorder. "While we don't know the exact proportion of patients with atopic dermatitis whose s...
Vitamin B No Help for Alzheimer's: Review
Vitamin B No Help for Alzheimer's: Review WEDNESDAY, July 16, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Taking B vitamins does not slow age-related mental decline or prevent Alzheimer's disease, a new review says. People with Alzheimer's have high blood levels of a compound called homocysteine, and people with elevated levels of the compound have been shown to be at higher risk for Alzheimer's. It's known that folic acid (vitamin B-9) and vitamin B-12 lower homocysteine levels, so it was believed that taking B vitamins ...
Vitamin D: A Key to a Longer Life?
Vitamin D: A Key to a Longer Life? TUESDAY, June 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Higher levels of vitamin D may protect people from an earlier death, particularly from cancer and heart disease, suggests a new analysis of existing research. And, the opposite may also be true -- low levels of vitamin D may be linked to a higher risk of premature death. But the researchers acknowledge that the review's findings aren't definitive. "People with low vitamin D die more frequently from heart disease and cancer, bu...
Veterans With Brain Injury May Be at Risk for Dementia: Study
Veterans With Brain Injury May Be at Risk for Dementia: Study WEDNESDAY, June 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Military veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury may be more prone to developing dementia, new research suggests. In fact, they were 60 percent more likely to be diagnosed with dementia sooner than those who never had a brain injury. ""Our results suggest that [brain injury] may increase the risk of developing dementia in older veterans, with an age of onset about two years earlier. ...
Vaccine for Infant Tummy Bug Cuts Hospitalizations: CDC
Vaccine for Infant Tummy Bug Cuts Hospitalizations: CDC MONDAY, June 9, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Since the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006, the number of kids hospitalized for severe diarrhea has dropped dramatically, a new study finds. Rotavirus is a common cause of sometimes severe gastrointestinal infections in babies and young children. However, by 2009-2010, hospitalizations for rotavirus among children under 5 had been reduced by 94 percent due to widespread vaccination, researchers from...
Venograma renal (Venograma renal, Venografía renal, Venograma de los riñones) Descripción general del procedimiento ¿Qué es un venograma renal? Un venograma renal es un procedimiento de diagnóstico que brinda información sobre el estado de la circulación de los riñones. Un venograma renal utiliza rayos X y un colorante de contraste intravenoso (IV) para visualizar las venas en los riñones y las venas que transportan sangre fuera de los riñones. La solución de contraste hace que los vasos sanguíneos apar...
Vascular Studies (Carotid, Arm, and Leg Arterial and Venous Studies, Carotid Ultrasound, Venous Doppler Studies, Arterial Doppler Studies, Pulse Volume Recordings, PVRS) Procedure overview What are vascular studies? Vascular studies are a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess the blood flow in arteries and veins. A transducer (like a microphone) sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. When the transducer is placed on the skin at certain locations an...
Vision Overview When an infant first emerges into the world, his or her eyesight is immature. While the infant can see the form of his or her mother and can tell the difference between light and dark, the ability to focus has not been developed. Monitoring your child's ability to see is an important part of the health of your growing child. Facts about vision problems: More than one in 20 preschoolers have vision problems of a type that can lead to vision loss if not treated. More than 12.1 million, or ...
Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)
Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) What is vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)? Vesicoureteral reflux occurs when urine dwelling in the bladder flows back into the ureters and often back into the kidneys. The bladder is the hollow, muscular organ that stores urine before urination occurs. The bladder has three small openings; two connect the ureters where urine is drained down from the kidneys, and one connects the bladder to the urethra where urine exits the body. The ureters are funnel-shaped tubes that carry urine ...
Vision and Hearing
Vision and Hearing Sometimes, babies have problems with vision or hearing. These problems may be due to a birth defect or prematurity. Vision and hearing loss in babies requires clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below is some additional information regarding vision and hearing, for which we have provided a brief overview. Retinopathy of Prematurity Hearing Loss in Babies
Vitamin, Gene, and Enzyme Replacement Therapy
Vitamin, Gene, and Enzyme Replacement Therapy How is vitamin, gene, and enzyme replacement therapy useful in the identification, treatment, and prevention of birth defects? Vitamin therapy. There is a wealth of research occurring in the area of nutrition and how it plays a role in either causing, preventing, or decreasing the chances for disease. Similarly, there has been research into the nutritional causes of birth defects. One such discovery involves a B vitamin called folic acid. Taking folic acid o...
Viruses, Bacteria, and Parasites in the Digestive Tract
Viruses, Bacteria, and Parasites in the Digestive Tract What are viruses, bacteria, and parasites? Viruses, bacteria, and parasites are living organisms that are found all around us. They exist in water and soil, on the surfaces of foods that we eat and on surfaces that we touch, such as countertops in the bathroom or kitchen. Some bacteria live in our bodies and do not cause problems. Other kinds of bacteria (as well as parasites and viruses) can make us quite ill if they invade our bodies. Bacteria an...
Viral Exanthems (Rashes)
Viral Exanthems (Rashes) Many viral infections of the skin in childhood are called "viral exanthems." Exanthem is another name for a rash or skin eruption. Viral exanthems (rashes) require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview. Rubella (German Measles) Rubeola (Measles) Roseola Fifth Disease Chickenpox
Viral Skin Infections
Viral Skin Infections Viral skin infections require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below is some additional information regarding viral skin infections, for which we have provided a brief overview. Herpes Zoster (Shingles) Pityriasis Rosea Warts Molluscum Contagiosum
Vascular Malformations and Hemangiomas
Vascular Malformations and Hemangiomas What is a hemangioma? A hemangioma is a type of birthmark. It is the most common benign (noncancerous) tumor of the skin. Hemangiomas may be present at birth (faint red mark) or may appear in the first months after birth. A hemangioma is also known as a port wine stain, strawberry hemangioma, and salmon patch. About 60 percent of hemangiomas occur in the head or neck area. Hemangiomas occur at least three times more often in females than in males. Most will continu...
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2500 South Woodworth Loop, Palmer, AK 99645
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2500 South Woodworth Loop, Palmer, AK 99645
Copyright 2015. All rights reserved.